Ingredient Insights: Electrolytes

Ingredient Insights: Electrolytes

Matt Walley |

Electrolytes are essential minerals that carry an electric charge and perform vital functions in the human body. They help maintain fluid balance, transmit nerve signals, and contract muscles. Electrolytes are found in different concentrations in the fluids inside and outside of cells. The fluids inside cells are called intracellular fluids (ICF) and the fluids outside cells are called extracellular fluids (ECF), which include blood plasma. The balance of electrolytes between these two fluid compartments is important for many physiological processes, such as the activity of the sodium-potassium pump, which regulates cellular membrane potential and muscle function. Different electrolytes have different roles in the body:

  • Sodium (Na+) is the main electrolyte in extracellular fluid and is responsible for fluid balance, nerve signal transmission, and muscle function. Sodium helps regulate the movement of water across cell membranes through osmosis, which affects the body’s hydration status. Sodium also contributes to the action potential in nerve cells, which is the basis of nerve communication and coordination. Sodium levels need to be kept within a narrow range to avoid problems such as muscle weakness, cramping, or hyponatremia, which can be fatal. Sodium intake and excretion are regulated by the kidneys, hormones, and thirst.
  • Potassium (K+) is the main electrolyte in intracellular fluid and is essential for heart function and fluid balance within cells. Potassium helps generate the electrical charge that enables muscle contractions, especially in the heart. Potassium also helps create and maintain a resting membrane potential and an action potential in nerve cells, which are necessary for nerve signal transmission. Potassium levels need to be balanced with sodium levels to ensure proper blood pressure and heart rhythm. Potassium imbalances can cause conditions such as hypokalemia or hyperkalemia, which can affect the heart and muscles.
  • Chloride (Cl-) is the main electrolyte that balances sodium in extracellular fluid and helps maintain fluid balance. Chloride also helps produce stomach acid, which is essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Chloride also participates in buffering reactions that help keep the body’s pH levels stable. Chloride levels need to be regulated to avoid dehydration, weakness, or acid-base imbalance. Chloride intake and excretion are influenced by sodium intake and excretion, as well as by the kidneys and hormones.
  • Calcium (Ca2+) is the most abundant mineral in the body and is crucial for bone health, muscle contraction, nerve signal transmission, and blood clotting. Calcium helps trigger muscle contractions by binding to proteins in muscle fibres. Calcium also helps release neurotransmitters from nerve endings, which are important for nerve communication and coordination. Calcium also enables blood clotting by activating the coagulation cascade. Calcium also acts as a second messenger in many hormonal and enzymatic reactions, enhancing signal transduction. Calcium levels need to be kept within a narrow range to avoid problems such as osteoporosis, muscle weakness, bleeding, or arrhythmia. Calcium intake and excretion are regulated by the parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and the kidneys.
  • Magnesium (Mg2+) is a versatile mineral that participates in over 300 metabolic reactions in the body. This includes its role in protein synthesis, DNA and RNA production, and cell replication. Magnesium also serves as a cofactor for enzymes that facilitate various biochemical processes, including those that produce cellular energy. Magnesium also regulates nerve impulses by controlling ion channels, which affects muscle relaxation and prevents spasms. Magnesium also helps relax muscles after contraction, preventing cramps. Magnesium also supports heart rhythm and immune system health. Magnesium also influences bone health indirectly by affecting parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolism, which are important for calcium metabolism. Magnesium levels need to be balanced to avoid issues such as muscle weakness, cramps, arrhythmia, or cardiovascular disease. Magnesium intake and excretion are influenced by dietary intake, absorption, and the kidneys.
  • Phosphate (HPO4^2-) plays a multifaceted role in the human body, contributing significantly to the structural integrity of bones and teeth. It does this primarily through its combination with calcium to form hydroxyapatite, a mineral compound that provides hardness and strength to the skeletal system. Beyond structural roles, phosphates are integral to the body’s energy systems; they are components of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and creatine phosphate, both of which are vital for energy transfer and storage within cells. Furthermore, phosphate groups are involved in the activation and deactivation of enzymes by phosphorylation, a process that modulates the function of proteins and thereby influences numerous metabolic pathways. Phosphates also contribute to the regulation of the body’s acid-base balance, serving as buffers that help the body maintain a neutral pH. This buffering capacity works alongside other systems to prevent significant fluctuations in acidity or alkalinity, which are crucial for the normal functioning of cells. Given their importance, phosphate levels are tightly regulated by the body, with excesses or deficiencies potentially leading to health issues such as bone disorders or electrolyte imbalances. A diet containing foods like dairy products, meat, and whole grains normally provides sufficient amounts of phosphate to meet the body’s requirements.
  • Bicarbonate (HCO3-) is a critical component in the physiological pH buffering system known as the bicarbonate buffer system, which is essential for maintaining the pH levels of body fluids within a narrow, optimal range. Bicarbonate ions serve to neutralise excess acids in the blood, thereby preventing the pH from becoming too acidic—a condition known as acidosis. This buffering action is pivotal for homeostasis, as even minor deviations from the normal pH range can significantly affect cellular processes and overall health. Additionally, bicarbonate ions influence the functionality of the cardiovascular system by affecting heart function and vascular tone. In muscle cells, they play a role in maintaining the proper functioning during contraction and relaxation. Bicarbonate is also involved in the transport of carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs, where it is then exhaled. The production and regulation of bicarbonate are closely monitored by the kidneys, which can either excrete or reabsorb bicarbonate in response to the body’s needs. An imbalance in bicarbonate levels can lead to a range of health issues, ranging from respiratory disorders to kidney disease. Ensuring an appropriate intake of bicarbonate can often be achieved through a balanced diet supplemented by the body’s natural regulatory mechanisms.


Electrolytes are lost through sweat, urine, and other bodily fluids, and need to be replenished through food and drinks. However, not all sources of electrolytes are equal. Some foods and beverages may contain too much or too little of certain electrolytes, or may have other ingredients that can interfere with electrolyte absorption or balance. For example, some sports drinks may have high amounts of sugar, artificial colours, or preservatives, which can have negative effects on health and performance.

That’s why Fortitude is the ideal choice for anyone who wants to replenish their electrolytes and amino acids in a natural and effective way. Fortitude is an EAA mix that contains magnesium L-aspartate, potassium L-aspartate, calcium citrate, and sodium citrate, which are the optimal forms of electrolytes for absorption and utilisation by the body. Fortitude also provides essential amino acids (EAAs), which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for muscle growth and recovery. Fortitude is made with natural ingredients and has no added sugar, artificial colours, or preservatives. Fortitude is easy to mix and drink, and comes in delicious flavours that will quench your thirst and satisfy your taste buds.

Fortitude is more than just a drink. It’s a way to support your health, performance, and well-being. By drinking Fortitude, you can ensure that your body gets the electrolytes and amino acids it needs to function optimally and to cope with the demands of physical activity, stress, and environmental factors. Whether you are an athlete, a fitness enthusiast, or a health-conscious individual, Fortitude can help you achieve your goals and feel your best.